Value Creation or the Opposite?

A vicious characteristic of the linear economy is its sole focus on value creation within the value chain. It largely disregards negative consequences for everybody and everything outside the value chain.

Typical examples are massive use of freshwater where scarcity rules and emission of greenhouse gasses and harmful byproducts. So outside the value chain a bill has to be paid. This tends to be neglected by parties directly involved in the value chain - including the consumer.